Node libraries VS browser


While building your capsule, you may need to add third party libraries for some features, such as web3, image manipulation, file archiving and so on.

Some of those NPM packages are meant to run both inside native (usually server side) node JS applications, but also from inside browsers.

Recent versions of angular and node CLIs may give you trouble with this. For example, eventhough the web3 library doesn’t really use the built-in http nodejs module when running in the browser, it’s still needed during thebuild process. You may face issues as following:

ERROR in ./node_modules/eth-lib/lib/bytes.js
Module not found: Error: Can't resolve 'crypto' in 'xxx/node_modules/eth-lib/lib'
ERROR in ./node_modules/web3/node_modules/eth-lib/lib/bytes.js
Module not found: Error: Can't resolve 'http' in 'xxx/node_modules/web3/node_modules/web3-providers-http/lib'
ERROR in ./node_modules/web3/node_modules/web3-providers-http/lib/index.js
Module not found: Error: Can't resolve 'https' in 'xxx/node_modules/web3/node_modules/web3-providers-http/lib'
ERROR in ./node_modules/xhr2-cookies/dist/xml-http-request.js
Module not found: Error: Can't resolve 'os' in 'xxx/node_modules/xhr2-cookies/dist'

Step 1 - Exclude native node modules from build

It’s not straightforward, but the first thing you can do is to try excluding all those dependencies from build checks. The following method will prevent the compiler from complaining about the missing modules. Though, if the modules are actually really required, the application will crash at runtime:

In your capsule’s package.json file, add the following:

"dependencies": {
"devDependencies": {
"browser": {
    "fs": false,
    "path": false,
    "os": false,
    "http": false,
    "tls": false,
    "https": false,
    "net": false,
    "crypto": false

Step 2 - Add browser versions of those modules

In case some of those native node modules are really used by your third party libraries, or if you don’t want to take the chance of unexpected behaviours at runtime, you can add some, or all of the browserified versions of those modules. Some NPM libraries exist for most of them.

Let’s take the example of the crypto module, actually really used by web3 (to use ethereum). Here are the steps to install and use a browser-based version of crypto, in order to replace the missing node JS one:

  • Don’t exclude crypto from package.json. Remove “crypto”: false from package.json.
  • Find and install the browserified version of crypto:
npm install --save crypto-browserify
  • Edit tsconfig.json to automatically let third party libraries use your newly installed (and compatible) library:
"compilerOptions": {
    "paths": {
      "crypto": [


Here are a few compatibility libraries to replace node JS modules with browser versions:

Node JS module Compatible browser version npm module
crypto crypto-browserify
zlib browserify-zlib
stream stream-browserify
os os-browserify
http http-browserify
https https-browserify